In antiquity, the core of Montenegro belonged to the Roman province of Illyricum and came to the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) in 395; Slavic tribes settled in the 7th century. The area of (Slavic) Duklja / Dioklitija (Latin Doclea, German Dioklitien) stood in the 7th – 11th centuries. Century under Byzantine influence (adoption of Greek Orthodox Christianity). In the 12-14 In the 16th century, Montenegro (called Zeta) was a principality part of the old Serbian empire of Raška (German Raszien). The Montenegrins rose up against Serbian sovereignty several times; the Serbian name Crna Gora has appeared since the end of the 13th century (the name Montenegro has been used by Venice since around 1500). After the death of Stephan IV. Dušan (1355), fell Montenegro since the Battle of Kosovo Polje in 1389 independent principality, to the dynasty of Balsici (1356-1421) and to the Crnojević (1426-99 or 1516), directed against the invading Turks since 1479 and the Venetian domination sought to assert along the Adriatic coast; In 1484 the capital was moved to Cetinje. Although Montenegro was formally annexed to the Ottoman Empire in 1499, since 1528 directly as Sandschak, the Turks could not exercise effective control over the mountain regions; the hill tribes remained undefeated. The 1697 by Vladika (Prince-Bishop) Danilo Petrović Njegoš (* 1672, † 1735) Introduced ecclesiastical rule established a hereditary dynasty through the transfer of office from uncle to nephew. During the Turkish wars (1683–99, 1714–18), Vladika was able to expand his relative (de facto) independence (since 1685) in agreement with Venice and Habsburg and also establish initial contacts with the Russian tsarist court.
Sava (1735–81) succeeded in internal consolidation; Peter I. Petrović Njegoš (1782–1830) took part in the wars against the Turks (1788–91; 1789 recognition of Montenegro by the Sultan) and against Napoleon I (1806–14), but also prepared new ones through legal measures (1798 Constitutional law) and the unification of rival tribes. Peter II. Petrović Njegoš practically achieved the independence of Montenegro; Danilo I. Petrović Njegoš (1852–60) laid down his ecclesiastical dignity in 1852 and proclaimed Montenegro to be the secular, hereditary principality of his house when the borders were established. Nicholas I. Petrović Njegoš (1860-1918) was able to achieve recognition of the independence of Montenegro with Russian support in the war against Turkey (1876-77) and after participating in the Russo-Turkish War 1877-78 at the Berlin Congress (1878) and Nikšić, Antivari and 1880 Win Ulcinj. Although he passed a constitution in December 1905 and made Montenegro a kingdom in 1910, he continued to rule autocratically; economically, Montenegro had become dependent on Austria-Hungary. Despite growing tensions with Serbia, Nicholas I. on the Serbian side in the Balkan Wars (1912/13) territorial expansion for Montenegro; the entry into the First World War on the side of the Entente (1914) led to the Austrian occupation after the surrender of Montenegro in 1916. On December 1, 1918 – after the king was deposed by the Skupština (parliament) on November 26, 1918 – Montenegro was incorporated into the newly formed South Slavic Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. After the disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1941, Italian troops occupied Montenegro, which was separated from the Yugoslav state association under the Italian protectorate (until 1944; strong resistance movement, until the beginning of January 1942 the Četnici, then communist partisans).
Coming back to Yugoslavia in 1945, according to allcitycodes, Montenegro (as a part republic of 1946 People’s Republic, 1963 Socialist Republic) was remodeled communist. After large demonstrations because of the economic problems (including 25% unemployment), the government and Communist Party leadership resigned on January 11, 1989; on April 28th, Momir Bulatović (* 1928) became Communist Party leader of Montenegro, supported by the Serbian Communist Party leader S. Milošević. In the first democratic elections since 1945 won on 9/23. 12. 1990 the Communists (since June 1991 “Democratic Party of Socialists”, abbreviation DPS; sister party of the Serbian SPS) a two-thirds majority; Chairman of the Presidium of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (later President) was M. Bulatović (until 1997).
After the majority of the population (95.9% with 66% participation) had voted in a referendum in favor of remaining in a common state with Serbia (March 1, 1992), Montenegro and Serbia proclaimed a new one on April 27, 1992 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). In the elections on December 20, 1992, the DPS won an absolute majority, but formed a coalition government. In the elections to the Republic of November 3, 1996, the DPS won again. In 1996/97, Montenegro tried to emancipate itself more strongly from Serbia, among other things. through the election of the more reform-oriented Prime Minister (since 1991) M. Djukanović as Bulatović’s successor and opponentas President (1997; inauguration: amid bloody unrest on January 15, 1998). His party alliance emerged as the clear winner in the parliamentary elections on May 31, 1998. In the Kosovo conflict in 1999 he tried to differentiate himself from the policies of S. Milošević (including taking in displaced Kosovars), which further increased intra-Yugoslav tensions (again in 2000). In November 2000 the D-Mark was declared the sole currency in Montenegro (from January 1, 2002: Euro).
Even after the “peaceful change” in Yugoslavia from autumn 2000, Montenegro under Djukanović maintained its course of independence from Serbia, despite warnings from Western politicians and the new Yugoslav and Serbian leadership. However, the outcome of the parliamentary elections in Montenegro in April 2001 did not lead to the clear vote expected by Djukanović for the independence of Montenegro; his electoral alliance »Victory for Montenegro« received only a slim majority with 42% of the vote, the grouping »Together for Yugoslavia« around Bulatović received 40.1% of the votes. Although the President of Yugoslavia, V. Koštunica, called on him and the government to negotiate the structure of relations with Serbia within the existing federation, Djukanović (initially) stuck to his plan to secede from Serbia. Together with the minority government (from May 2001) under F. Vujanović (also DPS), Djukanović endeavored to achieve independence unchanged through a referendum. In the cooperation agreement with the Liberal Federation from the end of May 2001, a law on an independence referendum was agreed for 2001.